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This document contains some pointers to publications concerning formal methods, especially those that are online, which are available on the World Wide Web.


For a good general introduction to formal methods, see:

J.M. Wing, A Specifier's Introduction to Formal Methods. IEEE Computer, 23(9):8–24, September 1990.

Another excellent introduction to some of the issues concerned with formal methods is:

J.A. Hall, Seven Myths of Formal Methods. IEEE Software, 7(5):11-19, September 1990.

The September 1990 issues of Computer, IEEE Software and IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering all contained articles on formal methods. A follow-up article as also available:

J.P. Bowen and M.G. Hinchey, Seven More Myths of Formal Methods. IEEE Software, 12(4):34-41, July 1995.

The above three papers are reprinted in the book High-Integrity System Specification and Design, 1999.

For some guidance on the industrial use of formal methods, see:

J.P. Bowen and M.G. Hinchey, Ten Commandments of Formal Methods. IEEEComputer, 28(4):56-63, April 1995.

For an update ten years later, see:

J.P. Bowen and M.G. Hinchey, Ten Commandments of Formal Methods ... Ten Years Later. IEEE Computer, 39(1):40-48, January 2006.

See also earlier conference version:

Ten Commandments Revisited: A Ten-Year Perspective on the Industrial Application of Formal Methods. In T. Margaria and M. Massink (eds.), FMICS 05: Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems, Lisbon, Portugal, 5–6 September 2005, pages 8-16. ACM, 2005.

A roundtable discussion on formal methods by some "noted experts" may be found in:

H. Saiedian (ed.), An Invitation to Formal Methods. IEEEComputer, 29(4):16-30, April 1996.

For a comparison of using formal methods versus not using formal methods, see:

P.G. Larsen, J. Fitzgerald and T. Brookes, Applying Formal Specification in Industry. IEEE Software, 13(7):48-56, May 1996.

See the group report from the Strategic Directions in Computing Research Formal Methods Working Group ACM Workshop, USA, August 1996:

E. Clarke and J. Wing, Formal Methods: State of the Art and Future Directions, CMU Computer Science Technical Report CMU-CS-96-178, August 1996. (22 pages, 123 references.)
Published in: ACM Computing Surveys, 28(4):626-643, 1996.

Finally, some more general articles setting formal methods in context:

Building a Better Bug-trap, The Economist, Science Technology Quarterly, 19 June 2003.Richard Sharpe, Formal Methods Start to Add up Again, Computing, 8 January 2004.Philip E. Ross, The Exterminators, IEEE Spectrum, pages 36–41, September 2005.

See also Formal Methods papers links from Roger Pressman.


The following online information is available:

Collections of online Technical Reports and papers

The following sites have produced online Reports including some on Formal Methods which may be of interest:

If you are searching for online Technical Reports, you may find the Unified Computer Science Technical Report Index helpful. E.g., see a list of Technical Reports concerned with formal methods. See also a list of Computer Science Technical Reports archive sites.


The following journals are either exclusively devoted to formal methods or include papers appertaining to formal methods including the underlying theory and software engineering aspects:

See also:

Individual books

The following books have online information associated with them:

See also:

Selected Technical Reports and online papers

The following are deemed to be of general interest:

* See the most cited computer science authors (many related to formal methods) in the CiteSeer database. See also the most cited computer science articles and the most cited computer science publications.

Formal methods search for papers under Z User Conference papers from DoCIS.

Last updated by Jonathan Bowen, 1 April 2009.
Further information for possible inclusion is welcome.